Chapter 2 – Section 1

© ‘Life in the united kingdom: a journey to citizenship’ material is reproduced under Open Parliament Licence.


Migration to Britain

Many people living in Britain today have their origins in other countries. They can trace their roots to regions throughout the world such as Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. In the distant past, invaders came to Britain, seized land and stayed. More recently, people come to Britain to find safety, jobs and a better life.

Britain is proud of its tradition of offering safety to people who are escaping persecution and hardship. For example, in the 16 th and 18 th centuries, Huguenots (French Protestants) came to Britain to escape religious persecution in France. In the mid – 1840s there was a terrible famine in Ireland and many Irish people migrated to Britain. Many Irish men became labourers and helped to build canals and railways across Britain.

From 1880 to 1910, a large number of Jewish people came to Britain to escape racist attacks (called ‘pogroms’) in what was then called the Russian Empire and from the countries now called Poland, Ukraine and Belarus.

Migration since 1945

After the Second World War (1939-45), there was a huge task of rebuilding Britain. There were not enough people to do the work, so the British government encouraged workers from Ireland and other parts of Europe to come to the UK to help with the reconstruction. In 1948, people from the West Indies were also invited to come and work.

During the 1950s, there was still a shortage of labour in the UK. The UK encouraged immigration in the 1950s for economic reasons and many industries advertised for workers from overseas. For example, centres were set up in the West Indies to recruit people to drive buses. Textile and engineering firms from the north of England and the Midlands sent agents to India and Pakistan to find workers. For about 25 years, people from the West Indies, India, Pakistan, and later Bangladesh, travelled to work and settle in Britain.

The number of people migrating from these areas fell in the late 1960s because the government passed new laws to restrict immigration to Britain, although immigrants from ‘old’ Commonwealth countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Canada did not have to face such strict controls. During this time, however, Britain did admit 28,000 people of Indian origin who had been forced to leave Uganda and 22,000 refugees from South East Asia.

In the 1980s the largest immigrant groups came from the United States, Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand. In the early 1990s, groups of people from the former Soviet Union came to Britain looking for a new and safer way of life. Since 1994 there has been a global rise in mass migration for both political and economic reasons.

Continue to Chapter 2 – Section 2

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98 Responses to “Chapter 2 – Section 1”

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  5. ashraf says:

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  6. admin says:

    The exam is not very difficult but requires studying. Read the couple of times and make sure you understand in general. Go through the practice questions. Finally read the book again before the test.
    Good luck.

  7. Gulbubu Martin says:

    I took my test today and failed.
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    Many of the questions in the test were not phrased as they were in the ‘Citizenship questions and answers for 2009′ book which I was told is the one to use for study?
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  8. S. D says:

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  9. S Menon says:

    Thank u for posting the subject material. It is helpful. I am preparing for the test. Any tips ????

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    S Menon

  10. Alejandro says:

    Regarding a question from the Official Citizenship Test Study Guide (Published 2008, 10th Impression, 2010)

    Page 24, Question 5:

    Since 1979 the number of refugees from South East Asia who have been allowed to settle in the UK is:
    A) Less than 2,500
    B) Between 2,501 and 10,000
    C) Between 10,001 and 25,000
    D) Over 25,000

    The correct answer in the handbook is said to be: D) Over 25,000

    However, in the official Second Edition of the ‘Life in the UK’ study guide (and also above in this page), it reads:
    “During this time, however, Britain did admit 28,000 people of Indian origin who had been forced to leave Uganda and 22,000 refugees from South East Asia.”

    Rather confusing, frustrating.
    Any ideas of which one of these is the real answer?

    Many thanks in advance.

    Alejandro 0.

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  12. Jenny says:

    Alejandro, thank you for bringing up the question as I would like to know the answer as well. Could Admin help us please?
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  15. hina says:

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  16. Napa says:

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  17. sakina munye says:

    how did you manage to listen to these chapters using your computer. maybe you can share it with me

  18. Preeti baseta says:

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  19. riaz says:

    can do with urdu language

  20. admin says:

    Riaz,

    I’m afraid the test is not available in foreign languages. After all, the idea is to test your knowledge in English language and life.

  21. sara says:

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  22. v says:

    interesting..but quite a lot of historical mistakes in the immigration chapter

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  26. ahmed says:

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  27. LC says:

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  28. Haris says:

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  29. Naveen says:

    Brilliant website
    all the questions were from this site, I think there is no need to use any other material.
    Thanks Hiren

    Naveen

  30. SS says:

    Somthing is missing! years!!

    I compared this section with the book i have for 2011 edition, its not exactly copy paste. Something is missing.

    “During this time, however, Britain did admit 28,000 people of Indian origin who had been forced to leave Uganda and 22,000 refugees from South East Asia.”

    Vietnam? nomention here
    which year indian camed from uganda? not mentioned here.
    please update this section.

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  33. Bhavi says:

    Are these chapters based on latest edition? pls admin reply asap .

  34. admin says:

    Yes, they are.

  35. rosie says:

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  36. rani says:

    Hi Admin,

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  37. rani says:

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  38. Cazza E says:

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  39. Sara O Osman says:

    hi ,admin i would like to know is this materials from the 2nd edition;the last book edition, in which the test will b from. please help me my test will b on 14th of September.

  40. Sara O Osman says:

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  41. sula says:

    hi,,I m planning to do the test soon. will this site be enough for the test to study? is it up to date. do i have to buy other books other than this?tnx

  42. ND says:

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  43. ND says:

    Just anther quick thing (especially to the married women here) the homeoffice does not state clearly anywhere how picky they are about the proff of id, they sent back loads of girls on the day i was there. Make sure that your name on your paasport (or any other form of id that you book your test with) matches exactly with the proof of residence, e.g. utility bills, bank statements. If your passport is in your maiden name and other docs are in married name, they WILL send you back and not accept any explanations. If your proof of address is in your married name, call your bank or utility provider to change your name, if they refuse to do so, add your maiden name as a ‘middle name’, without the double barrels. I was lucky as i use both my names (maiden and married) on all my documents, i was damn sure that they were going to send me back….. Just make sure that the names are EXACTLY the same…. and when you book the test, book it with military precision, any typos whilst submitting your application, whether DOB or spellings and you will be out… loads of people were being returned and you lose your money too and need to book it again. I felt it was quite unfair, so thought i would let everyone know…

  44. Manohar Gayam says:

    Hi Guys this web site is very helpfull and easy to understand for life in uk exam. me and my wife giving exam on 14th nov 2012. please wish us. Thanks
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  45. Rosy says:

    Planning to take test on 1st week of Jan 2013. I heard that book and contents will change and stuffs. Is that true ,where i can get more information from?

    Thanks

  46. Kawai says:

    22,000 refugees, I think it’s 25,000 refugees.

  47. HD says:

    Hi All.

    This website is really helpful, I passed my exam last 2 March in just under 5 minutes taken for the first time.

    A lot of the questions in the actual test are similar to the test on this site. Some are to the letter and some are meant to make you think.
    For one thing, the test questions on the websites or on the books might be phrased differently on the actual test. For example, one question was like, “How many percentage of women of school-age children are in paid work?”. The answer is “almost 75%”. In the book it is stated as “almost three-quarters” which is the same as 75%. This means that if you don’t have a good level of command/understanding of the English language, you might struggle with the exam. So if you had tried the test and failed, the best way is to get the ESOL course first to increase your level of English reading comprehension. This will massively improve your chance of passing.

    When booking for the test, make sure that you have the correct type of document of verification. During my test, 1 lady was refused to take the test because she selected “Travel Documents” instead of “Passport”.

    When studying/reviewing, on the last 3 days prior to your test,
    – read the chapters again so it will be fresh in your mind.
    – do several sets of practice tests as questions are meant to be random.

    When taking the test,
    – make sure that you are 15 minutes or earlier so you are settled
    – review your answers before submitting and finishing the test

    On the 25th March, test will be based on the 3rd edition (2013 edition).

    Good luck to all future test takers.

  48. anis says:

    its translate to every chapter in bangla language

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